A long-term teaching commitment of mine for 35 years was Introductory Psychology, a class in which I used a very innovative and effective behavioral teaching methodology developed by Fred Keller, known as the “Personalized System of Instruction” (PSI). I began using the PSI method in 1976 with my own section of Introductory Psychology. Over the years, I experimented with many facets and variations of the PSI method and introduced some significant innovations, like the first computer-based PSI management system. These efforts, together with other developments at that time in "computer-assisted instruction" reinforced my belief that technology would have a significant role to play in education.
In the early 80's, I began a unique collaboration with Al Miller, a faculty member in Engineering who was quite interested in the potential for engineering and professional education of the young (at that time) "desktop computing revolution." Both of us were convinced that Notre Dame should have a visible program of research in educational technology, and so we formed the Educational Technology Lab on campus that was devoted to cutting-edge research using laserdiscs to explore interactive video-based learning techniques. Not only did we create a pilot videodisc-based safety training program for IBM, we also created a summer program to train high school teachers how to use interactive video technology in the classroom. In addition, we initiated some work on computer-assisted instruction in Freshman Chemistry at Notre Dame, and we developed a computer-based method to facilitate delivery of rehabilitation services in St. Joe County, an applied effort to which I would return some time later (see the third sub-link in this section).
Here is our published work in this area:
Crowell, C. R., Quintanar, L. R., & Grant, K. L. (1981). PROCTOR: An online student evaluation and monitoring system for use with PSI format courses. Behavior Research Methods & Instrumentation, 13, 121-127.
Steck, E. J., Crowell, C. R., & Johnson, J. F. (1986). Comparing the instructional effectiveness of CAI and traditional methods in the freshmen chemistry lab. Proceedings of the National Educational Computing Conference, 7, 190-195.
Crowell, C. R., Hantula, D. A., Johnson, J. F., & Miller, A. E. (1986). The psychology of interactive learning. Proceedings of the Academic Microcomputer Conference, 2, 137-148.
Widerquist, K. L., Birdsell, J, Johnson, J. F., Crowell, C. R., & Miller, A. E. (1987). Designing a course to train secondary teachers to develop interactive videodisc courseware. Technological Horizons of Education Journal, 6, (February), 25-34.
Crowell, C. R., Hantula, D. L., Johnson, J. M., & Miller, A. E. (1987). Authoring for interactive learning: Some features and considerations. Proceedings of the Academic Microcomputer Conference, 4, 110-119.
Crowell, C. R., Johnson, J. F., Selner, M. B., Miller, A. E., Sayer, N. & Raine, B. (1987). Developing a model curriculum with database capabilities for severely handicapped adults. Proceedings of the CTG 5th International Conference: Computer Technology for Special Education and Rehabilitation, 25-32.
Sayer, N., Raine, B., Johnson, J., & Crowell, C. R. (1988). A model curriculum with database capabilities for severely handicapped adults. Closing the Gap, 6, 1-4.
Hantula, D. A., Boyd, J., & Crowell, C. R. (1989). Ten years of behavioral instruction with computers: Trials, tribulations, and reflections. Proceedings of the Academic Microcomputer Conference, 5, 143-155.
Quintanar, L. R., & Crowell, C. R. (1991). The PC/PBX exploration guide system for PC-based sales demonstrations and training. Proceedings of the AT&T Human Factors and Behavioral Sciences Symposium. Hinsdale, NJ.
Williams, C. J., & Crowell, C. R. (1993). Providing institutional support for developing and using educational technologies: A case study. Technological Horizons of Education Journal, 21, 114-118.
Crowell, C. R. & Worland, P. D. (1994) Behavioral instruction and computers: An 18-year experience at Notre Dame. In Langthorne, M & Williams, C. J. Changing the process of teaching and learning: Essays by Notre Dame faculty. University of Notre Dame, 1994.
Hagan, E. M., Matthews, A. R., & Crowell, C. R. (unpublished). The impact of study guide use on performance in a PSI course.